Skincare Decoded References

When we first started Skincare Decoded, we were worried we wouldn't be able to fill a whole book. By the time we were counting down the deadline, we were scrambling to trim content and cut pages to fit... So unfortunately not every reference made it to the printed bibliography. If you're curious about our sources, or want some further reading, here's the full list of our references!


1 Yardley, HaroldJ, and Roy Summerly. "Lipid composition and metabolism in normal and diseased epidermis." Pharmacology & therapeutics 13, no. 2 (1981): 357-383. 61 Smith, Walter P. "Epidermal and dermal effects of topical lactic acid." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 35, no. 3 (1996): 388-391.
2 Grinnell, Frederick. "Fibroblast biology in three-dimensional collagen matrices." Trends in cell biology 13, no. 5 (2003): 264-269. 62 Sarkar, Rashmi, Vijay Garg, Shivani Bansal, Sumit Sethi, and Chitra Gupta. "Comparative evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid, salicylic mandelic acid, and phytic acid combination peels in melasma." Dermatologic Surgery 42, no. 3 (2016): 384-391.
3 Ring, J., B. Eberlein-König, T. Schäfer, J. Huss-Marp, U. Darsow, M. Möhrenschlager, and H. Behrendt. "Skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, trans-epidermal water loss and skin roughness related to atopic eczema and skin dryness in a population of primary school children: clinical report." Acta Dermatology-Venerology 80 (2000): 188-191. 63 Grimes, Pearl E., Barbara A. Green, Richard H. Wildnauer, and Brenda L. Edison. "The use of polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) in photoaged skin." Cutis 73, no. 2 Suppl (2004): 3-13.
4 Schikowski, Tamara, and Anke Hüls. "Air pollution and skin aging." Current Environmental Health Reports (2020): 1-7. 64 Berson, Diane S., Joel L. Cohen, Marta I. Rendon, Wendy E. Roberts, Isaac Starker, and Beatrice Wang. "Clinical role and application of superficial chemical peels in today's practice." Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 8, no. 9 (2009): 803-811.
5 Schroeder, Peter, Stefan M. Schieke, and Akimichi Morita. "Premature skin aging by infrared radiation, tobacco smoke and ozone." In Skin aging, pp. 45-53. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006. 65 Brody, Harold J., Gary D. Monheit, Sorrel S. Resnik, and Thomas H. Alt. "A history of chemical peeling." Dermatologic Surgery 26, no. 5 (2000): 405-409.
6 Verrill, A. Hyatt. Perfumes and Spices: Including an Account of Soaps and Cosmetics-The Story of the History, Source, Preparation, And Use of the Spices, Perfumes, Soaps, And Cosmetics Which Are in Everyday Use. Read Books Ltd, 2013. 66 Mekas, Maria, Jennifer Chwalek, Jennifer MacGregor, and Anne Chapas. "An Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Novel Enzyme Exfoliation Versus Glycolic Acid in Photodamage Treatment." Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 14, no. 11 (2015): 1306-1319.
7 Froebe, C. L., F. A. Simion, L. D. Rhein, R. H. Cagan, and A. Kligman. "Stratum corneum lipid removal by surfactants: relation to in vivo irritation." Dermatology 181, no. 4 (1990): 277-283. 67 Sim, Young-Chul, Sung-Gu Lee, Dong-Cheol Lee, Byung-Young Kang, Kyung-Mok Park, Jang-Young Lee, Moo-Sung Kim, Ih-Seop Chang, and Joon-Shick Rhee. "Stabilization of papain and lysozyme for application to cosmetic products." Biotechnology letters 22, no. 2 (2000): 137-140.
8 Wilhelm, Klaus-P., Christian Surber, and Howard I. Maibach. "Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate--Induced Skin Irritation on In Vivo Percutaneous Penetration of Four Drugs." Journal of investigative dermatology 97, no. 5 (1991). 68 Matts, Paul J., John E. Oblong, and Donald L. Bissett. "A review of the range of effects of niacinamide in human skin." IFSCC Magazine 5, no. 4 (2002): 285-289.
9 Gfatter, R., P. Hackl, and F. Braun. "Effects of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants." Dermatology 195, no. 3 (1997): 258-262. 69
Bissett, D. L., K. Miyamoto, P. Sun, J. Li, and C. A. Berge. "Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin 1." International journal of cosmetic science 26, no. 5 (2004): 231-238.
10 Koski, Nina, E. Henes, C. Jauquet, Katy Wisuri, S. Rapaka, and L. Tadlock. "Evaluation of a sonic brush, cleanser, and clay mask on deep pore cleansing and appearance of facial pores through a new image analysis software methodology." J Am Acad Dermatol 70, no. 5 (2014): AB16. 70 Bissett, Donald L., John E. Oblong, Abel Saud, Cynthia A. Berge, Amy V. Trejo, and Kimberly A. Biedermann. "Topical niacinamide provides skin aging appearance benefits while enhancing barrier function." Cosmeceuticals and Active Cosmetics (2003): 421.
11 Lampe, Marilyn A., A. L. Burlingame, JoAnne Whitney, Mary L. Williams, Barbara E. Brown, Esther Roitman, and Peter M. Elias. "Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations." Journal of lipid research 24, no. 2 (1983): 120-130. 71 Draelos, Zoe Diana, Keith D. Ertel, and Cynthia A. Berge. "Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement." CUTIS-NEW YORK- 78, no. 4 (2006): 275.
12 Wefers, Heribert, Bodo C. Melnik, Martin Flür, Christel Bluhm, Percy Lehmann, and Gerd Plewig. "Influence of UV irradiation on the composition of human stratum corneum lipids." Journal of investigative dermatology 96, no. 6 (1991). 72 Matts, Paul J., John E. Oblong, and Donald L. Bissett. "A review of the range of effects of niacinamide in human skin." IFSCC Magazine 5, no. 4 (2002): 285-289.
13 Wilhelm, Klaus-P., Marianne Brandt, and Howard I. Maibach. "13 Transepidermal Water Loss and Barrier Function of Aging Human Skin." Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum (2004): 143. 73 Hsiu-OHo, Kuang-Yang Hsu, and Chau-Yang Chen. "The Degradation Kinetics of Niacinamide-Ascorbate Complex in Various Solutions."
14 Rawlings, A. V., David A. Canestrari, and Brian Dobkowski. "Moisturizer technology versus clinical performance." Dermatologic therapy 17 (2004): 49-56. 74 Ionescu, Marius Anton, Agnes Gougerot, Anne-Marie Matta, Luc Lefeuvre, and Michel Bohbot. "Melanocytes' dendricity down-regulated by the association niacinamide-ascorbic acid." In JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. AB78-AB78. 360 PARK AVENUE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USA: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, 2009.
15 Fowler, Joseph. "Understanding the role of natural moisturizing factor in skin hydration." Pract Dermatol 9 (2012): 36-40. 75 Draelos, Zoe Diana, Akira Matsubara, and Kenneth Smiles. "The effect of 2% niacinamide on facial sebum production." Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 8, no. 2 (2006): 96-101.
16 Lodén, Marie. "Role of topical emollients and moisturizers in the treatment of dry skin barrier disorders." American journal of clinical dermatology 4.11 (2003): 771-788. 76 Kaymak, Yeşim, and M. Önder. "An investigation of efficacy of topical niacinamide for the treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris." J Turk Acad Dermatol 2, no. 4 (2008): jtad82402a.
17 Kligman, Albert M. "Petrolatum is not comedogenic in rabbits or humans: A critical reappraisal of the rabbit ear assay and the concept of acne cosmetica." Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 47.1 (1996): 41-48. 77 Hakozaki, T., L. Minwalla, J. Zhuang, M. Chhoa, A. Matsubara, K. Miyamoto, A. Greatens, G. G. Hillebrand, D. L. Bissett, and R. E. Boissy. "The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer." British Journal of Dermatology 147, no. 1 (2002): 20-31.
18 Lodén, Marie. "Urea-containing moisturizers influence barrier properties of normal skin." Archives of dermatological research 288, no. 2 (1996): 103. 78 Camargo Jr, Flávio B., Lorena R. Gaspar, and Patricia MBG Maia Campos. "Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations." Journal of cosmetic science 62, no. 4 (2011): 361.
19 Pedersen, L. K., and G. B. E. Jemec. "Plasticising effect of water and glycerin on human skin in vivo." Journal of dermatological science 19, no. 1 (1999): 48-52. 79 Baldwin, Hilary E., Marge Nighland, Clare Kendall, David A. Mays, Rachel Grossman, and Joan Newburger. "40 years of topical tretinoin use in review." Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 12, no. 6 (2013): 638-642.
20 Pavicic, Tatjana, Gerd G. Gauglitz, Peter Lersch, Khadija Schwach-Abdellaoui, Birgitte Malle, Hans Christian Korting, and Mike Farwick. "Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in anti-wrinkle treatment." Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 10, no. 9 (2011): 990-1000. 80 Nimni, Marcel E. "Collagen: structure, function, and metabolism in normal and fibrotic tissues." In Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-86. WB Saunders, 1983.
21 Rodriguez, Kenneth R., Anthony E. Jones, and Barbara Belmont. "Evaluation Of Freeze Dried Aloe Vera And Nopal Cactus For Possible Health Treatments By Comparison Of Antioxidant Properties And Free Radical Inhibition." Journal of undergraduate chemistry research 13, no. 4 (2014): 67. 81 Yamauchi, Mitsuo, David T. Woodley, and Gerald L. Mechanic. "Aging and cross-linking of skin collagen." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 152, no. 2 (1988): 898-903.
Frömder, A., and B. C. Lippold. "Water vapour transmission and occlusivity in vivo of lipophilic excipients used in ointments." International journal of cosmetic science 15, no. 3 (1993): 113-124.
82 Pinnock, Carole B., and Christopher P. Alderman. "The potential for teratogenicity of vitamin A and its congeners." Medical journal of Australia 157, no. 11 (1992): 804-809.
23 Besné, Isabelle, Caroline Descombes, and Lionel Breton. "Effect of age and anatomical site on density of sensory innervation in human epidermis." Archives of dermatology 138, no. 11 (2002): 1445-1450. 83 Kong, Rong, Yilei Cui, Gary J. Fisher, Xiaojuan Wang, Yinbei Chen, Louise M. Schneider, and Gopa Majmudar. "A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin." Journal of cosmetic dermatology 15, no. 1 (2016): 49-57.
24 Schroeder, P., C. Calles, T. Benesova, F. Macaluso, and J. Krutmann. "Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation–effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage." Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 23, no. 1 (2010): 15-17. 84 Mukherjee, Siddharth, Abhijit Date, Vandana Patravale, Hans Christian Korting, Alexander Roeder, and Günther Weindl. "Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety." Clinical interventions in aging 1, no. 4 (2006): 327.
25 Marks, Robin, Peter A. Foley, Damien Jolley, Kenneth R. Knight, Josephine Harrison, and Sandra C. Thompson. "The effect of regular sunscreen use on vitamin D levels in an Australian population: results of a randomized controlled trial." Archives of dermatology 131, no. 4 (1995): 415-421. 85 Fisher, Gary J., and John J. Voorhees. "Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin." The FASEB Journal 10, no. 9 (1996): 1002-1013.
26 Frederick, John E., and H. Donnan Steele. "The transmission of sunlight through cloudy skies: An analysis based on standard meteorological information." Journal of Applied Meteorology 34, no. 12 (1995): 2755-2761. 86 Dhaliwal, S., I. Rybak, S. R. Ellis, M. Notay, M. Trivedi, W. Burney, A. R. Vaughn et al. "Prospective, randomized, double‐blind assessment of topical bakuchiol and retinol for facial photoageing." British Journal of Dermatology 180, no. 2 (2019): 289-296.
27 Blumthaler, M., W. Ambach, and R. Ellinger. "Increase in solar UV radiation with altitude." Journal of photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 39, no. 2 (1997): 130-134. 87 Bettoli, Vincenzo, Stefania Zauli, Alessandro Borghi, Giulia Toni, Michela Ricci, Alberto M. Bertoldi, and Annarosa Virgili. "Efficacy and safety of a 12-month treatment with a combination of hydroxypinacolone retinoate and retinol glycospheres as maintenance therapy in acne patients after oral isotretinoin." Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia: organo ufficiale, Societa italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia 152, no. 1 (2017): 13.
28 Aldahan, Adam S., Vidhi V. Shah, Stephanie Mlacker, and Keyvan Nouri. "The history of sunscreen." JAMA dermatology 151, no. 12 (2015): 1316-1316. 88 Han, Hye-Sook, Youn-Ja Kwon, Myoung-Soon Park, Si-Ho Park, So-Mi Kim Cho, Young-Soy Rho, Jin-Wou Kim, Hong-Sig Sin, and Soo-Jong Um. "Efficacy validation of synthesized retinol derivatives in vitro: stability, toxicity, and activity." Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11, no. 17 (2003): 3839-3845.
29 Gonzaga, Evelyn R. "Role of UV light in photodamage, skin aging, and skin cancer." American journal of clinical dermatology 10, no. 1 (2009): 19-24. 89 Bellemere, G., G. N. Stamatas, V. Bruere, C. Bertin, N. Issachar, and T. Oddos. "Antiaging action of retinol: from molecular to clinical." Skin pharmacology and physiology 22, no. 4 (2009): 200-209.
30 Petersen, Marta J., Craig Hansen, and Steve Craig. "Ultraviolet A irradiation stimulates collagenase production in cultured human fibroblasts." Journal of investigative dermatology 99, no. 4 (1992): 440-444. 90 Gold, Michael H., Leon H. Kircik, Vivian W. Bucay, Monika G. Kiripolsky, and Julie A. Biron. "Treatment of facial photodamage using a novel retinol formulation." Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD 12, no. 5 (2013): 533-540.
31 Wilson, Brummitte Dale, Summer Moon, and Frank Armstrong. "Comprehensive review of ultraviolet radiation and the current status on sunscreens." The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology 5, no. 9 (2012): 18. 91 Hou, Qiang, Ming Li, Yan‑Hua Lu, Dong‑Hong Liu, and Cheng‑Cun Li. "Burn wound healing properties of asiaticoside and madecassoside." Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 12, no. 3 (2016): 1269-1274.
32 Kleinpenning, Marloes M., Tim Smits, Marjolein HA Frunt, Piet EJ Van Erp, Peter CM Van De Kerkhof, and Rianne MJP Gerritsen. "Clinical and histological effects of blue light on normal skin." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 26, no. 1 (2010): 16-21. 92 Haftek, Marek, Sophie Mac‐Mary, Marie‐Aude Le Bitoux, Pierre Creidi, Sophie Seité, André Rougier, and Philippe Humbert. "Clinical, biometric and structural evaluation of the long‐term effects of a topical treatment with ascorbic acid and madecassoside in photoaged human skin." Experimental dermatology 17, no. 11 (2008): 946-952.
33 Schroeder, P., C. Calles, T. Benesova, F. Macaluso, and J. Krutmann. "Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation–effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage." Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 23, no. 1 (2010): 15-17. 93 Lee, Minji, Hyun-Soo Kim, Aryeong Cho, So Hyeon Jeon, Na Kyeong Lee, Kyu Joong Ahn, and In Sook An. "The effects of essence-formed cosmetic ingredients containing the galactomyces ferment filtrate on skin improvements in keratinization, pores, sebum excretion, brightness and acne." Kor J Aesthet Cosmetol 12, no. 1 (2014): 77-84.
34 Adler, Brandon L., and Vincent A. DeLeo. "Sunscreen Safety: a Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment." Current Dermatology Reports (2020): 1-9. 94 Lee, J., H. Jun, E. Jung, J. Ha, and D. Park. "Whitening effect of α‐bisabolol in Asian women subjects." International journal of cosmetic science 32, no. 4 (2010): 299-303.
35 Sachdeva, Silonie. "Fitzpatrick skin typing: Applications in dermatology." Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 75, no. 1 (2009): 93. 95 Sharma, Anjali, Sonal Gupta, Indira P. Sarethy, Shweta Dang, and Reema Gabrani. "Green tea extract: possible mechanism and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens." Food chemistry 135, no. 2 (2012): 672-675.
36 Matta, Murali K., Robbert Zusterzeel, Nageswara R. Pilli, Vikram Patel, Donna A. Volpe, Jeffry Florian, Luke Oh et al. "Effect of sunscreen application under maximal use conditions on plasma concentration of sunscreen active ingredients: a randomized clinical trial." Jama 321, no. 21 (2019): 2082-2091. 96 Ali, Md Sajid, Md Sarfaraz Alam, Faisal Imam Imam, and Masoom Raza Siddiqui. "Topical nanoemulsion of turmeric oil for psoriasis: characterization, ex vivo and in vivo assessment." International Journal of Drug Delivery 4, no. 2 (2012): 184.
37 Pirotta, G. I. U. L. I. O. "An overview of sunscreen regulations in the world." Household and Personal Care Today 10, no. 4 (2015): 17-20. 97 Lee, Griffin R., Melody Maarouf, Aleksi J. Hendricks, Dylan E. Lee, and Vivian Y. Shi. "Topical probiotics: the unknowns behind their rising popularity." Dermatology Online Journal 25, no. 5 (2019).
38 Stamford, Nicholas PJ. "Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives." Journal of cosmetic dermatology 11, no. 4 (2012): 310-317. 98 Liu, Wenfeng, Yonglian Li, Xi Zheng, Kun Zhang, and Zhiyun Du. "Potent inhibitory effect of silibinin from milk thistle on skin inflammation stimuli by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate." Food & function 6, no. 12 (2015): 3712-3719.
39 Bickers, David R., and Mohammad Athar. "Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of skin disease." Journal of Investigative Dermatology 126, no. 12 (2006): 2565-2575. 99 Kim, Beom Joon, A. NO Yeon, Yonghee Lee, Myung Nam Kim, Chang Kwon Hong, Kwang Ho Yoo, Yong Min Kim, Jung Hyun Hwang, and Su Yeon Kong. "Use of Cream Containing Mucus Secreted by Snails Has an Anti-aging Effect on Skin." Korean Journal of Dermatology 53, no. 6 (2015): 430-436.
40 Jurkiewicz, Beth Anne, and Garry R. Buettner. "Ultraviolet light‐induced free radical formation in skin: an electron paramagnetic resonance study." Photochemistry and photobiology 59, no. 1 (1994): 1-4. 100 Baxter, Richard A. "Anti‐aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation." Journal of cosmetic dermatology 7, no. 1 (2008): 2-7.
41 Pandel, Ruža, Borut Poljšak, Aleksandar Godic, and Raja Dahmane. "Skin photoaging and the role of antioxidants in its prevention." ISRN dermatology 2013 (2013). 101 Beitner, Harry. "Randomized, placebo‐controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% α‐lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin." British Journal of Dermatology 149, no. 4 (2003): 841-849.
42 Telang, Pumori Saokar. "Vitamin C in dermatology." Indian dermatology online journal 4, no. 2 (2013): 143. 102 Knott, Anja, Volker Achterberg, Christoph Smuda, Heiko Mielke, Gabi Sperling, Katja Dunckelmann, Alexandra Vogelsang et al. "Topical treatment with coenzyme Q 10‐containing formulas improves skin's Q 10 level and provides antioxidative effects." Biofactors 41, no. 6 (2015): 383-390.
43 Espinal‐Perez, Liliana Elizabeth, Benjamin Moncada, and Juan Pablo Castanedo‐Cazares. "A double‐blind randomized trial of 5% ascorbic acid vs. 4% hydroquinone in melasma." International journal of dermatology 43, no. 8 (2004): 604-607. 103 Kim, Young-Je, Mi Ji Choi, Dong-Ho Bak, Byung Chul Lee, Eun Jung Ko, Ga Ram Ahn, Seung Won Ahn, Moo Joong Kim, Jungtae Na, and Beom Joon Kim. "Topical administration of EGF suppresses immune response and protects skin barrier in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice." Scientific reports 8, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.
44 Barnes, M. J. "Function of ascorbic acid in collagen metabolism." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 258, no. 1 (1975): 264-277. 104 Tzung, Tien‐Yi, Kuan‐Hsing Wu, and Mei‐Lun Huang. "Blue light phototherapy in the treatment of acne." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 20, no. 5 (2004): 266-269.
45 Gallarate, Marina, Maria Eugenia Carlotti, Michele Trotta, and S. Bovo. "On the stability of ascorbic acid in emulsified systems for topical and cosmetic use." International Journal of Pharmaceutics 188, no. 2 (1999): 233-241. 105 Saleh, Fatma Y., Eman S. Abdel-Azim, Maha H. Ragaie, and Mary G. Guendy. "Topical tranexamic acid with microneedling versus microneedling alone in treatment of melasma: clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical study." Journal of the Egyptian Women’s Dermatologic Society 16, no. 2 (2019): 89.
46 Bacharach, Alfred Louis, Phyllis Margaret Cook, and Ernest Lester Smith. "The ascorbic acid content of certain citrous fruits and some manufactured citrous products." Biochemical Journal 28, no. 3 (1934): 1038. 106 ÇETINER, Salih, Turna ILKNUR, and Şebnem ÖZKAN. "Phototoxic effects of topical azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide and adapalene were not detected when applied immediately before UVB to normal skin." European Journal of Dermatology 14, no. 4 (2004): 235-237.
47 Ali, Basma M., Amal A. El-Ashmawy, Gamal M. El-Maghraby, and Rania A. Khattab. "Assessment of clinical efficacy of different concentrations of topical ascorbic acid formulations in the treatment of melasma." Journal of the Egyptian Women’s Dermatologic Society 11, no. 1 (2014): 36-44. 107 Schallreuter, K. U., and J. W. Wood. "A possible mechanism of action for azelaic acid in the human epidermis." Archives of dermatological research 282, no. 3 (1990): 168-171.
48 Pinnell, Sheldon R. "Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 48, no. 1 (2003): 1-22. 108 Ertam, Ilgen, Basak Mutlu, Idil Unal, Sibel Alper, Bijen Kivcak, and Ozgen Ozer. "Efficiency of ellagic acid and arbutin in melasma: A randomized, prospective, open‐label study." The Journal of dermatology 35, no. 9 (2008): 570-574.
49 Iizuka, Hajime. "Epidermal turnover time." Journal of dermatological science 8, no. 3 (1994): 215-217. 109 Han, Tae Young, In Pyeong Son, Woo Sun Jang, Hee Sun Chang, Ji Hyun Kim, Young Hwa Sim, Du Ho Kim et al. "Efficacy of hydrogel mask with 2% arbutin for melasma." Korean Journal of Dermatology 49, no. 3 (2011): 210-216.
50 Takahashi, Motoji, Yasuhiko Machida, and Ronald Marks. "Measurement of turnover time of stratum corneum using dansyl chloride fluorescence." J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem 38 (1987): 321-331. 110 Zolghadri, Samaneh, Asieh Bahrami, Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan, J. Munoz-Munoz, Francisco Garcia-Molina, F. Garcia-Canovas, and Ali Akbar Saboury. "A comprehensive review on tyrosinase inhibitors." Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 34, no. 1 (2019): 279-309.
51 Tagami, Hachiro. "Functional characteristics of the stratum corneum in photoaged skin in comparison with those found in intrinsic aging." Archives of dermatological research 300, no. 1 (2008): 1-6. 111 Na, J. I., S. Y. Choi, S. H. Yang, H. R. Choi, H. Y. Kang, and K‐C. Park. "Effect of tranexamic acid on melasma: a clinical trial with histological evaluation." Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 27, no. 8 (2013): 1035-1039.
52 Kornhauser, Andrija, Sergio G. Coelho, and Vincent J. Hearing. "Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity." Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology: CCID 3 (2010): 135. 112 Ebrahimi, Bahareh, and Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini. "Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma." Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 19, no. 8 (2014): 753.
53 Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi, and Satomi Igawa. "The biology and regulation of corneodesmosomes." Cell and tissue research 360, no. 3 (2015): 477-482. 113 Spellman, Mary C., and Stephanie H. Pincus. "Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid and glycolic acid combination therapy compared with tretinoin therapy for acne." Clinical therapeutics 20, no. 4 (1998): 711-721.
54 Arif, Tasleem. "Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review." Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology 8 (2015): 455. 114 Faghihi, Gita, Azam Taheri, Zabihollah Shahmoradi, and Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh. "Solution of azelaic acid (20%), resorcinol (10%) and phytic acid (6%) versus glycolic acid (50%) peeling agent in the treatment of female patients with facial melasma." Advanced Biomedical Research 6 (2017).
55 Bernstein, Eric F., Douglas B. Brown, Mark D. Schwartz, Kays Kaidbey, and Sergey M. Ksenzenko. "The polyhydroxy acid gluconolactone protects against ultraviolet radiation in an in vitro model of cutaneous photoaging." Dermatologic surgery 30, no. 2 (2004): 189-196. 115 Uitto, Jouni. "The role of elastin and collagen in cutaneous aging: intrinsic aging versus photoexposure." Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 7, no. 2 Suppl (2008): s12.
56 Hunt, Michelle J., and Ross StC Barnetson. "A comparative study of gluconolactone versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne." Australasian journal of dermatology 33, no. 3 (1992): 131-134. 116 Ellis, Millikan, Smith, Chalker, Swinyer, Katz, Berger, et al. 1998. “Comparison of Adapalene 0·1% Solution and Tretinoin 0·025% Gel in the Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.” British Journal of Dermatology 139 (s52): 41–47.
57 DiNARDO, JOSEPH C., Gary L. Grove, and Lawrence S. Moy. "Clinical and histological effects of glycolic acid at different concentrations and pH levels." Dermatologic surgery 22, no. 5 (1996): 421-424. 117 Thiboutot, Diane M., Jonathan Weiss, Alicia Bucko, Lawrence Eichenfield, Terry Jones, Scott Clark, Yin Liu, Michael Graeber, and Sewon Kang. 2007. “Adapalene-Benzoyl Peroxide, a Fixed-Dose Combination for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized Double-Blind, Controlled Study.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 57 (5): 791–99.
58 Smith, W. P. "Comparative effectiveness of α‐hydroxy acids on skin properties." International journal of cosmetic science 18, no. 2 (1996): 75-83. 118 Williams, Hywel C, Robert P Dellavalle, and Sarah Garner. 2012. “Acne Vulgaris.” The Lancet 379 (9813): 361–72.
59 Stiller, Matthew J., John Bartolone, Robert Stern, Shondra Smith, Nikiforos Kollias, Robert Gillies, and Lynn A. Drake. "Topical 8% glycolic acid and 8% L-lactic acid creams for the treatment of photodamaged skin: a double-blind vehicle-controlled clinical trial." Archives of dermatology 132, no. 6 (1996): 631-636. 119 Davis, Erica C., and Valerie D. Callender. "Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color." The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology 3, no. 7 (2010): 20.
60 Kaidbey, Kays, Betsy Sutherland, Paula Bennett, Wayne G. Wamer, Curtis Barton, Donna Dennis, and Andrija Kornhauser. "Topical glycolic acid enhances photodamage by ultraviolet light." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 19, no. 1 (2003): 21-27.    


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We did it! We compiled all our zainy skincare notes into one place. It's all so pretty, organized, and all the pages have color. Who knew that this whole venture as two cubicle buddies would lead us here!

You might not know this but this all started because of an auspicious friendship. We happened to be two skincare formulation chemists that worked for the same big beauty company and soon became quick friends because we shared the same (lousy) sense of humor. But more importantly we also shared the same frustrations with the skincare industry. It was confusing, laced with crazy marketing claims, and some of the price tags were making our brains short circuit.

Chemist Confessions and Skincare Decoded is just about decoding the skincare world to make your skincare do better for your skin. Whether you've been a part of the Chemist Confessions journey all along, or you've just discovered us through this book, we hope the book can help guide you on your next skincare purchase with a few laughs along the way. And as always, if you have any questions, write to us!

Your Friendly Neighborhood Chemists,

Gloria & Victoria